Next Generation PEM Electrolysers under New Extremes ...

Deliverables


 

 WP1
 
 

 D1.1 - Project Shared Workspace Implemented and Operiational - Confidential

To fulfil two fundamental internal project communication requirements: i) efficient exchange between partners of information about NEPTUNE project ii) decentralised and secured archiving of the documents generated, one independent and secured web-based communication tool: Project Shared Workplace – PSW has been implemented with a restricted access for project partners only. Among all the functionalities installed on this PSW, for now partners have a total access to the following tools:
- Document sharing and archiving
- Meeting organization
- General project communication
- Online working document
The PSW maintenance is therefore an on-going activity that will go along with the project lifetime

 WP2
  
 

D2.1 - Harmonised test protocols for assessing system components, stack and balance of plant in a wide range of operating temperature and pressures - PDF

The objectives of this deliverable are to define characterisation and testing protocols for the assessment of performance, efficiency and durability of PEM electrolyser components, stack and balance-of-plant developed in the project to address wide operating conditions in terms of operating current density, temperature and pressure.
The procedures and methods defined within are a set of protocols for ex-situ and in-situ characterisation of active components such as membranes, catalysts, and electrode-membrane assemblies (MEAs). Included are steady-state and accelerated durability tests as well as performance evaluation under specific operating conditions.
These test protocols are also addressed to the assessment of performance, efficiency and durability of a PEM water electrolyser (PEMWE) stack operating under high current density (up to 8 A cm-2), high temperature (up to 140 °C) and high pressure (up to 100 bar). For operation under such extreme conditions, the stack has to be surrounded by a specifically designed balance of plant. Accordingly, specific procedures are regarding an evaluation of the overall PEM electrolysis system under the operating conditions targeted within the project.
The procedures essentially include polarization curves, differential pressure operation, gas crossover analysis and durability tests. A protocol for stack failure analysis is formulated and the aspects related to safety issues are also discussed. For what concerns the balance of plant, particular efforts are addressed to assess the dynamic behaviour of such advanced electrolyser. Specific protocols regard load and on-off cycles, assessment of the dynamic performance using specific current profiles simulating intermittent operation.
In parallel, the aim of this activity is also to implement the harmonised characterisation protocols developed by the Joint Research Laboratory of the European Commission (JRC-IET) for testing MEAs & stacks with an extension of operating conditions to address the specific NEPTUNE project targets. The definition of these protocols will serve as an input for both the harmonization efforts within the FCH JU program but also to provide input to subsequent specification work as well as to enable planning of the test activities in WP3, WP4, WP5 and WP6.
The specific procedures are thus addressed to:
- Mapping of system level requirements to component level requirements
-Define a set of protocols for assessing the PEM electrolysis system under stationary conditions in terms of performance, efficiency & durability.
- Define a set of procedures for the assessment of PEM electrolyser system in relation to the operation under specific duty cycles.

 WP3
   
 

D.3.1 – Supply of 1st Generation Reinforced, Recast and Extruded Aquivion® Membrane and Ionomer Dispersions for High Temperature and High Pressure Operation - PDF

Deliverable D3.1 is aimed at the definition of the first generation of Aquivion-based membrane and ionomer for electrolysis operation under Neptune conditions. In this regard extruded E98-05S membrane (prepared using newly introduced quality inspection system), recast and reinforced membranes were prepared and characterized. Reinforced membranes were produced using novel Torlon PAI support produced via forcespinning after selection of the most promising commercial grade for this application. The three different membrane grades were evaluated in terms of proton conductivity by varying RH, mechanical properties, water uptake and dimensional stability upon soaking in hot water. Although promising, Torlon-based Aquivion-reinforced membranes are considered as not mature enough to be used in the Neptune final stack and the downselection was restricted to recast and extruded membranes.

 WP4  
   
 

D4.1 – Data-set on catalytic activity, electrochemical performance and stability of enhanced catalysts - PDF

The purpose of this Deliverable was to develop enhanced PEM electrolysis components characterised by a significant decrease of the noble metal content and an increase of the current density with respect to the state-of-the art. Membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) based on a novel Aquivion® membrane, specifically designed for water electrolysis, with enhanced Ir0.7Ru0.3Ox, Pt/C and Pt-Alloy catalysts have thus been developed and assessed in this work in terms of performance and durability using low catalyst loadings. In this deliverable, we are operating the MEAs at an electrolysis current density (4 A·cm-2) in accordance with the project targets in the presence of a significant reduction of the total noble metal loading (0.44 mg·cm-2 MEA) while maintaining a very high conversion efficiency (>80%).
The specific activity are thus addressed to:
• The development of oxygen evolution electro-catalysts. The main approach of this task regards the improvement of the intrinsic activity and stability through tailoring anode catalyst surface chemistry, electronic effects and crystallographic orientation. The aim is to produce stable nanostructured solid solutions of Ir and Ru with a core-shell configuration consisting of Ir enrichment on the surface and optimised crystallographic orientation.
• The development of hydrogen evolution electro-catalysts. As for the anode catalyst, noble metal-based cathode catalysts are necessary to provide corrosion resistance in acidic environment and appropriate catalytic activity for hydrogen evolution. These are essentially based on Pt. The aim of this task is to further reduce the cathode catalyst loading to less than 0.1-0.05 mg cm-2, increase current density up to 4-8 A cm-2 while keeping the low overpotential characteristics of the hydrogen evolution process. Pt electrocatalysts for cathodic operation will be supported on a stable carbon nanofibres support to substitute microporous carbon blacks.
• The development of anode integrated recombination catalyst. This task is addressing the development of an unsupported recombination catalyst based on a Pt-alloy with core-shell structure. A thin layer recombination catalyst, with ultralow PGM loading, will be integrated in the anode structure at the interface with the membrane to electrochemically oxidize permeated hydrogen that has not recombined inside the membrane. The aim is to limit the hydrogen content in the oxygen stream below a limit of 0.2-0.5% at high differential pressures (100 bar) through a dual layer recombination process.

 WP5
   
 

D5.1 - Assessment of membrane electrode assemblies for high temperature and high-pressure operation - PDF

The NEPTUNE project develops a set of breakthrough solutions at materials, stack and system level to operate at high temperature (90-140ºC) and high nominal current density (4 A⋅cm-2), while keeping the energy consumption <50 kWh/kg H2 and directly produce hydrogen at 100 bars. The relative high stack temperature is managed by using an Aquivion® membrane. The aimed high efficiency at elevated current density is realised using a 50 μm thin reinforced Aquivion® membrane, able to withstand high differential pressures. The gas crossover is safely managed by adding an efficient recombination catalyst. Improved electrocatalysts with high activity and stability has been developed. The developed improved precursors have allowed the manufacture of well performing MEAs with ultralow catalyst loadings (0.44 mgPGM/cm2). MEAs added 0.2 mg recombination catalyst per cm2 fulfils the ambiguous NEPTUNE performance targets of <1.75 V at base load (4 A/cm2) and <2.2 V at peak load (8 A/cm2). Furthermore, degradation rates ≈ 5 μV/h are measured for these ultralow PGM loaded MEAs.

 WP7
   
 

D7.1 - Design of a project identity and project templates (presentations, logo) - PDF

The communication of the project will be unified along a common visual entity. A coherent visual chart (colours, fonts, designs) will be derived from the project logo and provided in several shapes and formats (document templates etc.). This visual identity will be used extensively throughout the project, creating a distinguishable brand that will be recognized by the various communities.

 

D7.2 - Project website and database for dissemination - PDF

The NEPTUNE project website is designed to fulfil project communication and dissemination needs for the benefit of the whole scientific community and the public through relevant information including:
 - project overall objectives, partner & work packages information
- project activities: news, meetings
- project progress: technical publications, conference presentations, public domain reports
- project resources: links, related events …
- project contact information

All the partners will collectively participate in the dissemination objective of the website by providing up-to-date information The contact database has been implemented to provide a powerful - dissemination and networking tool, it will be updated on a regular basis.

 

D7.3 - Dissemination and knowledge management protocol - Confidential

This report presents the dissemination protocol for the NEPTUNE project, the procedure for “Open Access” to peer reviewed research articles, internal rules, information on support from the EU members and the strategy for Knowledge Management within the project.

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